The US would have no way of linking your new and old passport and no way of linking your new and old name. Likewise, an ESTA application in a new name and with a new name passport would be a straightforward process if you decided interpret the questions (moral turpitude/significant harm) to your advantage..
However ... if you have entered the US previously with a visa your fingerprints would have been taken at point of entry. If you show up with a new name, new passport and ESTA, they will take your fingerprints again at point of entry.
Depending on how long ago you were last in the US (2 fingerprint or 10 fingerprint days), your fingerprints are going to match those already stored against your old name.
I've no idea what happens at that point if DHS get a match